Haiti currently holds the 10th position on the Fragile State Index (FSI), a comprehensive metric evaluating a state’s well-being across various categories. This paper focuses on key FSI indicators, notably State Legitimacy (9.9), Public Services (9.8), Human Rights (8.7), and External Intervention (9.6). While these scores offer a snapshot, a deeper exploration of Haiti’s history provides crucial context to understand its responses to current challenges.

Historical Context

Haiti’s history is marked by the success of the Western Hemisphere’s only slave rebellion, leading to its independence in 1804. Subsequently, the nation witnessed 45 leaders and 32 coups, with only four democratically elected presidents. The rise of NGOs, prompted by the Duvalier dictatorships’ mismanagement and overreliance on foreign aid, shifted the power dynamic. NGOs, especially after Hurricane Hazel in 1954, grew from 18 to 26 under the Duvaliers’ rule, ultimately controlling critical state programs. The resulting overdependence on foreign aid weakened the government, fostering corruption and low voter turnout.

The aftermath of the 2010 earthquake, causing significant loss of life and displacement, brought UN peacekeepers (MINUSTAH) to Haiti. However, this intervention led to new challenges, including sexual abuse and a cholera outbreak traced back to Nepalese peacekeepers.

Given the constraints of summarizing 200 years of Haitian history, this brief overview emphasizes key historical factors influencing Haiti’s present state.

Current Issues

The 2021 assassination of Jovenel Moïse has plunged Haiti into increased instability, empowering gangs. Thousands have fled Port-au-Prince, and elections have not occurred since 2016. Interim President Ariel Henry has postponed elections until the crisis is resolved, presenting three significant challenges. Previous UN intervention, the questionable track record of the proposed Kenyan force, and cultural differences contribute to a complex scenario. The formidable power of Haitian gangs further complicates any potential foreign intervention.

Possible Solutions – Election

In light of Haiti’s precarious situation, a potential solution lies in modeling an election strategy akin to The Gambia’s 2016 success. The involvement of neighboring countries, like the Dominican Republic and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), could provide essential support, mirroring successful interventions seen in The Gambia. This collaborative effort allows Haitians to elect leaders independently, fostering a more stable transition.

Possible Solutions – Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC)

Given Haiti’s unique challenges, a Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) becomes imperative for healing and transparency. While typically a state-led process, precedent exists for NGO-run TRCs, as demonstrated in Uruguay and Guatemala. Overcoming skepticism regarding NGOs in Haiti requires a grassroots approach, with Haitians leading the process. Aligning with the UN’s resolution 2692 (2023), this approach ensures a Haiti-owned and Haiti-led TRC.


Haiti grapples with a tumultuous past and present, encompassing natural disasters, inadequate leadership, rampant gang influence, and persistent foreign intervention. The citizenry remains marginalised, devoid of control over their state. Exploring viable solutions, such as a collaborative election strategy and a grassroots-led TRC, offers hope for a more stable and democratic future. The international community’s support, in alignment with lessons from successful models, becomes crucial in steering Haiti towards positive change.


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