Nirbhay Rana, Asst. Professor, IILM University, Gurugram


In the diverse democracy of India, known for its rich tapestry of cultures, religions, and beliefs, the recent introduction of a dress code by the BJP party has ignited a heated debate. This dress code, featuring the color saffron and the lotus motif, carries unmistakable religious symbolism. This article explores the profound implications of employing a dress code that represents a particular religion in a democratic nation like India and its impact on the fundamental principles of democracy and secularism.

Democracy and Representation

  1. Freedom of Expression vs. Political Uniformity

In a vibrant democracy, freedom of expression is a fundamental right. It encompasses not only the freedom to speak and express ideas but also the freedom to dress and present oneself in a manner that reflects one’s beliefs and identity. The introduction of a dress code closely aligned with the symbolism of one religion potentially suppresses this freedom for those who do not share the same religious affiliation. The risk lies in stifling the diversity of opinions and identities that a healthy democracy should encourage.

  1. Inclusivity vs. Exclusivity

Democracy’s strength lies in its inclusivity. A democratic system aims to encompass all citizens, regardless of their religious, cultural, or social background. A dress code laden with religious symbolism can be perceived as exclusive and divisive, undermining the principles of equal representation and inclusivity. In a nation as diverse as India, where people of different faiths and backgrounds coexist, such a dress code may unintentionally create divisions rather than fostering unity.

  1. Minority Concerns

India is a nation with a multitude of religions, cultures, and languages. A dress code that emphasizes symbols of one religion raises concerns among minority communities. They may interpret this as an attempt to marginalize or alienate them, casting a shadow over the promise of equal representation and protection of minority rights in a democratic system. This adds to the apprehension surrounding the potential erosion of the secular fabric of the nation.

Religious Identity and Political Expression

  1. Identity Politics and Religious Affiliation

The introduction of religious symbolism in a political dress code may lead to the rise of identity politics, where an individual’s political affiliation becomes intertwined with their religious identity. This shift can have far-reaching consequences, potentially diverting political discourse away from issues and policies to religious or cultural affiliations. The danger here is that political decisions may increasingly be influenced by religious or cultural factors, rather than rational and inclusive policies.

  1. Alienation of Certain Groups

Individuals belonging to different faiths may feel alienated or excluded by a dress code that is overtly associated with one particular religion. This could lead to the polarization of society, with citizens identifying more with their religious communities than their shared national identity. Such polarization poses a significant concern for the unity and stability of a democratic nation, as it can breed divisions and hinder progress.

Historical Context: India’s Journey towards Secular Democracy

Understanding the implications of a dress code with religious symbolism in Indian politics necessitates an examination of India’s historical path towards a secular democracy.

  1. The Constitution of India: A Secular Foundation

India’s Constitution, adopted in 1950, enshrined secularism as a fundamental principle. It guarantees the right to religious freedom and equality, emphasizing that the state shall not discriminate against any citizen on the grounds of religion. This founding document set the stage for a nation where individuals of all faiths could coexist and participate in the democratic process without fear of religious bias.

  1. Pioneering Political Figures

Leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru and B.R. Ambedkar played vital roles in shaping India’s secular identity. Nehru, the first Prime Minister, was a staunch advocate of a secular state. Ambedkar, the chief architect of the Constitution, ensured that secularism was a key element of the document. Their efforts reinforced the importance of unity in diversity, setting the tone for a nation where multiple religions coexist harmoniously.

The Symbolism of Saffron and Lotus

The introduction of a dress code by the BJP party that prominently features the color saffron and the lotus motif raises several questions:

  1. Saffron: A Color with Religious Significance

Saffron is closely associated with Hinduism, one of the major religions in India. It holds deep cultural and religious significance and is often used in religious rituals and attire.

  1. Lotus: A Symbol of Hindu Mythology

The lotus is a symbol of purity in Hinduism and is associated with various Hindu deities. It is a well-known symbol in Indian culture.

  1. The BJP’s Assertion

The BJP’s choice of saffron and the lotus motif as elements of their dress code is seen as a clear assertion of their Hindu identity and values. While the party argues that it represents a significant portion of the population, it raises concerns about the secular nature of the state.

The Role of Political Parties

Political parties in a democracy play a pivotal role in shaping the nation’s political landscape. They are responsible for not only representing the interests and aspirations of their supporters but also upholding the democratic values and principles that define the nation.

  1. The BJP’s Perspective

The BJP’s decision to introduce a dress code with religious symbolism is rooted in their political ideology and vision for the country. They view this as an assertion of their cultural and religious identity, which they believe resonates with a significant portion of the population.

  1. Responsibility to Uphold Secularism

In a diverse and pluralistic society like India, political parties also have a responsibility to uphold the principles of secularism. They must navigate the delicate balance between expressing their cultural and religious identity and ensuring that they do not alienate or marginalize any section of the population.

  1. The Role of Opposition

The opposition parties in India play a crucial role in holding the ruling party accountable and representing the interests of diverse groups. They must engage in a thoughtful and constructive dialogue regarding the implications of a dress code with religious symbolism in Indian politics.

Public Discourse and Debate

In a democratic society, public discourse and debate are essential mechanisms for addressing complex issues like the introduction of a dress code with religious symbolism in politics.

Conclusion: Navigating the Intersection of Religion and Democracy

In a diverse and democratic nation like India, the intersection of religion and politics is a delicate balance. While individuals have the right to express their religious identity, political parties must remain sensitive to the diverse fabric of society. The recent introduction of a dress code that carries religious symbolism in Indian politics raises legitimate concerns about the principles of secularism, equality, and inclusivity that underpin the nation’s democratic identity.

In a democracy, it is essential to uphold the values of representation, freedom of expression, and inclusivity. The introduction of a dress code that represents a particular religion is a matter of debate and requires careful consideration. Striking a balance between religious identity and political expression while respecting the democratic principles that define India is the challenge that lies ahead.

Ultimately, the path chosen will not only shape the image of political parties but also influence the future direction of Indian politics and the preservation of its democratic values. The nation’s diversity is its strength, and preserving its democratic ideals remains a collective responsibility. As India continues its journey, the politics of dress will continue to be a complex and thought-provoking aspect of its evolving political landscape. The choices made in the realm of political attire bear significant weight, not merely as matters of personal style, but as symbols of ideology and representation in a diverse and dynamic democracy. It is in navigating this intricate intersection of religion and democracy that the future of Indian politics and the preservation of its democratic principles will be decided.

In the vibrant democracy that is India, the politics of dress serves as a reminder of the intricate dance between tradition and progress, culture and modernity, and identity and unity. As the nation grapples with the complexities of a rapidly changing world, it is imperative that political parties and leaders remember the essence of democracy: the representation and inclusion of all citizens, irrespective of their religious, cultural, or social affiliations. The diversity of India is its greatest asset, and safeguarding its democratic ideals must be a collective responsibility.

The politics of dress is not merely a superficial matter of fashion; it is a profound reflection of the nation’s values and its commitment to ensuring that every citizen’s voice is heard. As India continues its journey, the way it handles this intricate aspect of its political landscape will ultimately shape the country’s image and determine the direction in which it travels. This path is one that must be tread with caution, reverence for diversity, and a deep commitment to preserving the democratic principles that lie at the heart of the nation’s identity.


Constitution of India Government of India. (1950). The Constitution of India.

Bhargava, R. (2008). Secularism in India. Oxford University Press.

Guha, R. (2007). India After Gandhi: The History of the World’s Largest Democracy. HarperCollins.

Chakravarti, U. (2016). Secularism and the constitution of the Indian body politic. Contemporary South Asia, 24(2), 193-207.

Pandey, G. (2022, February 15). BJP’s new dress code – how a hue can divide and symbolize. The Indian Express

Pew Research Center. (2014). Religion in India: Tolerance and Segregation

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